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Konsulko Group to speak at Yocto Project Virtual Summit

Konsulko Group’s Leon Anavi will present Porting Mender to New i.MX 8M Plus Machine and Working with Toradex BSP at the Yocto Project Virtual Summit. Leon will focus on porting Mender, a popular open source over-the-air software update solution, to Toradex Verdin iMX8M Plus SoM. He’ll examine the exact steps to build images for it and the Dahlia carrier board using the long-term support release of Yocto Project and the Toradex BSP.

Tim Orling will present two technical “lightning talks.” Running QEMU Images with virtio, virsh and virt-manager will discuss some experiences building and launching QEMU images with tools that leverage libvirt and virtio on a host. Creating an Installer that Leverages bmaptool will describe how to create an installer image using output from another image and writing all the partitions at once to the target using bmaptool.

The Yocto Project Virtual Summit is a 3-day technical conference for engineers, open source technologists, students and academia in the OSS space. Learn about Yocto Projects’ direction, get training on the next wave of embedded Linux technologies and network with industry peers, Yocto Project maintainers, OpenEmbedded maintainers and other experts.

Registration is $40 for the whole event. We hope you are able to join us.

Konsulko Group: The Year in Review 2021

Thanks to our customers, our partners and our dedicated team of engineers, 2021 was a very successful year for Konsulko Group. 

We’ve been chosen to work on important projects in consumer electronics, automotive, medical devices, agriculture, mining, finance, and autonomous vehicles. Our engineers helped our clients, new and old, build outstanding commercial products with Embedded Linux, Yocto Project and OpenEmbedded, as well as deploying Over-the-Air (OTA) software updating.

Partnerships

“Konsulko is a recommended and trusted partner for helping Mender customers and prospects succeed in the Embedded Linux space. They have an excellent team of professionals who will deliver on time and as agreed.”

Thomas Ryd, CEO, mender.io

We continued our strong relationships with mender.io, and with the Linux Foundation and Automotive Grade Linux (AGL). 

We also launched a new partnership with PHYTEC at the Embedded Linux Conference (ELC) in Seattle. Konsulko is providing support and development for PHYTEC customers using their Systems on Modules (SOMs) and Yocto Project Linux distribution.

Conferences

As in previous years, Konsulko engineers were active participants (often virtually) in conferences and developer gatherings, making presentations at ELC and Yocto Project Summits, and writing technical papers on Yocto Project, security, and OTA. We hope for a time in the not-too-distant future when it makes sense for developers from all over the world to gather again face-to-face to share ideas. 

Contributions

As many of our engineers have been working (and playing) with Open Source Software (OSS) for over 20 years, Konsulko Group is proud of our continuing commitment to contribute to the community. Last month we were happy to hear that Konsulko is #3 in contributions to Yocto Project “Non Core,” just behind industry giants ARM and Fujitsu, and ahead of every other software or hardware company.

This was even before we welcomed OSS veteran Tim Orling to the team in December. Tim was recently Core OS Architect and Yocto Project Architect for Intel Corporation, and serves as a maintainer of meta-python and many recipes in openembedded-core. He has authored hundreds of applied patches for openembedded-core and meta-openembedded. 

Doing business with Konsulko Group

As a team we have found that the best way to work with our customers and prospective customers is to provide a high level of transparency about our business processes. This year, we’ve published blogs on scoping the effort required to successfully complete a customer project, and another describing our two models of engagement

  • Konsulko Continuous Time Engagement™ for dedicated engineering resources
  • Konsulko OnDemand Time Engagement™ for high level consulting, on-demand support, and specific tasks within a larger project.

We hope you have found these useful, and we look forward to working with you in 2022.

“Surfing on an Interactive Kiosk” at Yocto Project Summit

The Yocto Project and OpenEmbedded are often used for building custom GNU/Linux distributions for powering interactive kiosk and displaying HTML5 content. Surf is a simple minimalist web browser based on WebKit2/GTK+ with interface that does not include any graphical control elements.

In his presentation, Surfing on a Interactive Kiosk, Konsulko Group’s Leon Anavi will describe the exact steps to build a minimal GNU/Linux distribution with systemd, X11, openbox window manager and the Surf web browser.

Yocto Project Virtual Summit, May 25-26, 2021, is both a workshop for engineers building customized Linux distributions and applications, and an open forum where maintainers, trainers and users present papers on how the project is evolving. The highly interactive classes will be presented in Zoom, with chat sessions, side rooms, teaching assistants, and hands-on exercises with live class accounts.

We hope you will participate with us in the Summit.

Building a DIY SOHO router, 18 months later

Building a DIY SOHO router using the Yocto Project build system OpenEmbedded, 18 months later

It’s been around a year since my last post on this project, and 18 months since I posted the article series itself. In the world of home networking equipment that’s practically a lifetime. So it’s worth doing a check-in on this project, I think.

My little router is still going just fine. In terms of things I had talked about earlier in the series, I’m still using the ability to easily roll back a test image to try out backports. Most recently, I tried to add IPv6 Prefix Delegation support to the DHCPv6 client in an older version of systemd. It didn’t work, but with just a reboot I was back to my normal image. As times change, devices at home change, and I’m using the dnsmasq configuration file to document what devices are in the house. Performance? Still doing just great. The next time I do one of these series, my household might have crossed the threshold where newer WiFi standards are in enough devices we own that I want something that handles them, but we aren’t there yet. By then I might also just have a new PCIe card to drop in.

In terms of the article series itself, it’s a testament to the stability of the Yocto Project and everyone who works on it. Since the original posts, Mender has internally upgraded a significant amount, and in turn some of the examples there aren’t quite correct for a modern build. Mender has excellent documentation, however, and it’s been easy to update my build to work all along the way and upgrade from the older version to the new. Everything else? Yes, that’s all still correct. What prompted this particular post is that the Yocto Project has announced another milestone release, and that’s always a good time to make sure my device is up to date. My latest changes were quite literally just renaming the Linux kernel bbappend file and saying the layer is compatible with the new release. That was less work than updating the firewall rules to take in to account both Daylight Savings Time changes and that my kids are a bit older and realistically want to be online a little later.

Time to sign up for Virtual ELC Europe 2020

Join us at the Linux Foundation’s Embedded Linux Conference Europe, the premier vendor-neutral technical conference for embedded Linux developers, presented virtually on October 26–29, 2020.

Konsulko Group’s Leon Anavi will give a talk on Software Update Solutions for Yocto Project and OpenEmbedded, exploring the integration in Yocto and OpenEmbedded of A/B and binary delta updates over the air or through a USB stick.

No matter where you are in the world, here’s a good chance to experience ELC Europe for a fraction of the cost of the in-person event.

Getting Started with RAUC on Raspberry Pi

RAUC is a secure, robust and flexible open source software for A/B updates of Embedded Linux devices. It is appropriate for various use cases and it is compatible with all popular build systems: The Yocto Project/ OpenEmbedded, Buildroot and PTXdist.

Konsulko Group engineers have experience with all popular open source solutions for software over the air updates of embedded Linux devices, including Mender, SWUPdate, HERE OTA Connect based on OSTree and Aktualizr. In this article we will discuss the exact steps to integrate RAUC with the Yocto Project (YP) and OpenEmbedded (OE) for Raspberry Pi – the most popular single board computer among students, hobbyists and makers.

For the practical example in this article we will be using the latest and greatest Raspberry Pi as of the moment: Raspberry Pi 4 Model B. Versions with different RAM sizes are available on the market. Any of these Raspberry Pi 4 Model B versions are OK for this RAUC demonstration.

As long time developers and users of the Yocto Project and OpenEmbedded, both have become favorite tools for creating customized distributions for Konsulko engineers. We frequently use and support them commercially. The Yocto Project is a Linux Foundation collaborative open source project for creating custom Linux distributions for embedded devices. It is based on Poky, the reference distribution of the Yocto Project, using the OpenEmbedded build system. The Yocto Project releases on a 6-month cadence. As of the time of this writing, the latest stable release is Dunfell (3.1).

RAUC is a powerful and flexible open source solution that requires advanced skills for initial integration. To use RAUC in an image for Raspberry Pi built with the Yocto Project and OpenEmbedded, it requires:

  • U-Boot as a bootloader
  • Enabled SquashFS in the Linux kernel configurations
  • ext4 root file system
  • Specific partitioning of the microSD card that matches the RAUC slots
  • U-Boot environment configurations and a script to properly switch RAUC slots
  • Certificate and a keyring to RAUC’s system.conf

RAUC is capable of covering various use cases and scenarios, including advanced options for single or redundant data partitions. Upgrades are performed through the so called RAUC bundles. It is possible to install them over the air or using the old-fashioned method with a USB stick. For managing updates to a fleet of Internet of Things, it is possible to integrate RAUC with Eclipse hawkBit project that acts as a deployment server with a nice web user interface.

For the sake of simplicity, this article focuses on the most simple and straight-forward use case with 2 identical RAUC slots: A and B. For each slot we will have a separate partition on the microSD card for Raspberry Pi. We have already covered most of the RAUC requirements in an additional Yocto/OE layer called meta-rauc-raspberrypi. We will use it to put the pieces together. First we will build a minimal bootable image for Raspberry Pi 4 with RAUC. We will flash it to both A and B slots. After that we will build a RAUC bundle that adds the text editor nano. Finally we will install this RAUC bundle on the B slot, reboot and verify that nano is present.

Building a Linux Distribution with RAUC

Follow the steps below to build a minimal image for Raspberry Pi with Yocto, OpenEmbedded and RAUC as well as to perform a software update:

  • Download Poky, the reference distribution of the Yocto Project:

git clone -b dunfell git://git.yoctoproject.org/poky poky-rpi-rauc
cd poky-rpi-rauc

  • Download meta-openembedded layer:

git clone -b dunfell git://git.openembedded.org/meta-openembedded

  • Download Yocto/OE BSP layer meta-raspberrypi:

git clone -b dunfell git://git.yoctoproject.org/meta-raspberrypi

  • Download Yocto/OE layers for RAUC:

git clone -b dunfell https://github.com/rauc/meta-rauc.git

git clone -b dunfell https://github.com/leon-anavi/meta-rauc-community.git

  • Initialize the build environment:

source oe-init-build-env

  • Add layers to conf/bblayers.conf:

bitbake-layers add-layer ../meta-openembedded/meta-oe/
bitbake-layers add-layer ../meta-openembedded/meta-python/
bitbake-layers add-layer ../meta-openembedded/meta-networking/
bitbake-layers add-layer ../meta-openembedded/meta-multimedia/
bitbake-layers add-layer ../meta-raspberrypi/
bitbake-layers add-layer ../meta-rauc
bitbake-layers add-layer ../meta-rauc-community/meta-rauc-raspberrypi/

  • Adjust conf/local.conf for Raspberry Pi 4 with systemd and RAUC by adding the following configurations to the end of the file:
MACHINE = "raspberrypi4"

DISTRO_FEATURES_append = " systemd"
VIRTUAL-RUNTIME_init_manager = "systemd"
DISTRO_FEATURES_BACKFILL_CONSIDERED = "sysvinit"
VIRTUAL-RUNTIME_initscripts = ""

IMAGE_INSTALL_append = " rauc"

IMAGE_FSTYPES="tar.bz2 ext4 wic.bz2 wic.bmap"
SDIMG_ROOTFS_TYPE="ext4"
ENABLE_UART = "1"
RPI_USE_U_BOOT = "1"
PREFERRED_PROVIDER_virtual/bootloader = "u-boot"

WKS_FILE = "sdimage-dual-raspberrypi.wks"
  • Build a minimal bootable image:

bitbake core-image-minimal

NOTE: Building an image from scratch requires a lot of operations and takes some time so please patiently wait until bitbake completes all tasks.

  • Flash the image to a microSD card and boot it on Raspberry Pi 4:

sudo umount /dev/sdX*
bzcat tmp/deploy/images/raspberrypi4/core-image-minimal-raspberrypi4.wic.bz2 | sudo dd of=/dev/sdX
sync

  • Attach USB to UART debug cable to Raspberry Pi 4, plug ethernet cable and the microSD card. Turn on Raspberry Pi 4. Verify that the system boots successfully.
  • Now, let’s extend the image with the simple text editor nano by adding the following line to the end of conf/local.conf:

IMAGE_INSTALL_append = " nano"

  • Build a RAUC bundle:

bitbake update-bundle

  • Start a web server:

cd tmp/deploy/images/raspberrypi4/
python3 -m http.server

  • On the Raspberry Pi download the RAUC bundle, install it and reboot the board:

wget http://192.168.1.2:8000/update-bundle-raspberrypi4.raucb -P /tmp
rauc install /tmp/update-bundle-raspberrypi4.raucb
reboot

  • After successful upgrade with RAUC reboot the Raspberry Pi and verify that nano is now present:

which nano

  • Check RAUC status to confirm that now the second partition has been booted:

rauc status

For Internet of Things and other real-world products, the whole build procedure with the Yocto Project and OpenEmbedded can be optimized further to just a few commands for easy implementation of continuous integration (CI).

Konsulko engineers have been there since the earliest days of the OpenEmbedded build framework and the Yocto Project. We have experience with RAUC and various other open source solutions for software updates. Please contact us if you need your “own” rock-solid Linux distro for your own embedded product.

 

Helping Yocto Project work with Python 3

According to the statistics from StackOverflow Python is the fastest-growing major programming language. First released in 1991, Python is nowadays commonly used for various applications in multiple different industries. Python is a first class citizen of many embedded Linux systems.

The Yocto Project, a collaborative project of the Linux Foundation for creating custom Linux distributions for embedded devices, uses the OpenEmbedded build system and relies on layer meta-python from meta-openembedded to deliver Python 3 packages. Until recently, meta-python was providing both python 2 and python 3 versions of each package. The Python community decided that January 1, 2020, was the day to sunset Python 2. Since then Python 2 has been officially deprecated. This triggered major changes related to the support in Yocto and OpenEmbedded. All recipes for version 2 were moved to layer meta-python2 to provide legacy support after the end of life for this Python release. In meta-openembedded/meta-python, the OpenEmbedded community started efforts to remove all recipes for version 2 as well as to consolidate inc and bb files into a single bb file for version 3.

Konsulko Group engineers are regular contributors to various upstream open source projects, including meta-openembedded and more specifically to meta-python. In the past month, Leon Anavi joined the community efforts for consolidating Python 3 recipes in a single file as well as for upgrading various packages. Nowadays, most of the Python 3 recipes are utilizing the pypi bbclass which takes care for downloading and processing packages from pypi.org. This makes most of the upgrades to new releases of a Python package straight-forward. However, it is important to check the list of build and runtime dependencies as well as to ensure that bitbake still works fine with the upgraded recipe version for both x86-64 and ARM architectures prior to submission. 

Let’s have a closer look at the recipe python3-protobuf. It has been recently upgraded from version 3.11.3 to version 3.12.2. Protocol Buffers, also known as protobuf, are Google’s language-neutral, platform-neutral, extensible mechanism for serializing structured data. In the Yocto and OpenEmbedded ecosystem, recipe python3-protobuf depends on recipe protobuf from layer meta-oe. Both meta-oe and meta-python are part of meta-openembedded. So to avoid version mismatch and to ensure that bitbake will be able to successfully build python3-protobuf version 3.12.2 an upgrade of recipe protofobuf to the same version was mandatory. We contributed both upgrades to the master branch of the git repository meta-openembedded. The maintainers took care of cherry-picking them to the dunfell branch which is compatible with the latest stable release of the Yocto Project as of the moment. As a result, if you checkout the latest stable release of Poky, the reference system of the Yocto Project, and meta-openembedded you will be able to quickly build the latest version of protobuf and python3-protobuf out of the box.

Konsulko engineers have been there since the earliest days of the OpenEmbedded build framework and the Yocto Project. We continue to regularly make upstream contributions to these open source projects. Please contact us if you need your “own” Linux distro for your own embedded product.

Join virtual ELCNA & Yocto Project Dev Day

There’s still time to register for the Linux Foundation’s Embedded Linux Conference North America Virtual Experience and Yocto Project® Dev Day.

Konsulko Group will be giving four presentations. On Tuesday, June 30, Matt Porter will give an in-depth tutorial: Spelunking for Hardware Data and on Wednesday, July 1, Leon Anavi will look at Automotive Grade Linux on Raspberry Pi: How Does It Work?

At Yocto Dev Day on Thursday, July 2, Paul Barker will explore Highly Scalable Build Automation and Scott Murray will discuss Security Hardening.

Please join us for three days of education and virtual collaboration.

Getting some help with build systems

One of the most rewarding parts of working at Konsulko Group has been our returning customers. Months, sometimes years, after we’ve successfully completed an engagement, we’ll hear from the same client (sometimes at the same company, sometimes at a new one) that they would like Konsulko’s help on their latest project.

Konsulko engineers have decades of experience at all levels of open source embedded software, from Linux kernel and low-level subsystems, through middleware and application development, to QA, maintenance and tools, but it is our expertise with the Yocto Project/OpenEmbedded build system that’s usually a part of everything we do.

From the time it first appeared in 2003, the OpenEmbedded build framework revolutionized embedded development, providing a systematic and reusable way to build custom Linux distributions for unique embedded devices. Almost ten years ago, OE became the build system of Yocto Project, and OE’s “recipe” approach was further structured and enhanced by layers.

Konsulko engineers have been there since the earliest days. We’ve seen a lot, learned a lot, and apply our expertise to helping our customers – old and new – build their “own” Linux distro for their own product.

See you at FOSDEM

Konsulko Group engineers will be attending FOSDEM ’20 on February 1 & 2. Look for us during the conference around the Automotive Grade Linux and OpenEmbedded stands, or at Leon Anavi’s presentation on Saturday, Building Homebridge with the Yocto Project. Hope we see you in Brussels!

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